La cité semble avoir été largement désertée autour de 2600 av. Pennsylvania Press. ). The bodies in the collective burials were kept in a flexed position and were laid east to west.  Some sophisticated firing techniques were used from Period VI and VII and an area reserved for the pottery industry has been found at mound MR1. Découvertes. Pennsylvania Press. However, due to some difficulties in conclusively identifying these figurines with the "mother goddess", some scholars prefer using the term "female figurines with likely cultic significance". Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. have been found. 2.4K likes. ", The Mehrgarh Period II (5500 BCE–4800 BCE) and Merhgarh Period III (4800 BCE–3500 BCE) were ceramic Neolithic, using pottery, and later chalcolithic. La fin de la civilisation de l’Indus La civilisation de l’Indus s’effondre assez rapidement vers 1800-1700 avant notre ère. Elle est issue de Mehrgarh, dans la partie occidentale de ce qui constitua par la suite le cœur de la civilisation de l'Indus. Harris DR (2010) Origins of Agriculture in Western Central Asia: An Environmental-Archaeological Study. [note 3], Gallego Romero et al. The amulet was made from unalloyed copper, an unusual innovation that was later abandoned. While the mutation spread across Europe, another explorer must have brought the mutation eastward to India – likely traveling along the coast of the Persian Gulf where other pockets of the same mutation have been found. Read more: Balochistan, Latest, mehrgarh civilisation. Archaeologists divide the occupation at the site into eight periods. Mehrgarh Periods II and III are also contemporaneous with an expansion of the settled populations of the borderlands at the western edge of South Asia, including the establishment of settlements like Rana Ghundai, Sheri Khan Tarakai, Sarai Kala, Jalilpur and Ghaligai. The data obtained as a result of the excavation work of Mehrgarh has provided some evidence of cultivation and evidence of trade relations with far-flung countries. A stone axe is found here. ", "Food-producing Communities in Pakistan and Northern India", "Figure féminine - Les Musées Barbier-Mueller", "High spatial dynamics-photoluminescence imaging reveals the metallurgy of the earliest lost-wax cast object", "Human Skeletal Remains from Ancient Burial Sites in India: With Special Reference to Harappan Civilization", "Deep common ancestry of Indian and western-Eurasian mitochondrial DNA lineages", "Pre-Harappan Neolithic-Chalcolothic Settlement at Mehrgarh, Baluchistan Pakistan", "Metal Technologies of the Indus Valley Tradition in Pakistan and Western India", "Gender and Archaeology in South and Southwest Asia", "Ancient Days: The Pre-Formation of Indian Civilization", List of cultural heritage sites in Balochistan, Pakistan, Sanitation of the Indus Valley Civilisation, Inventions of the Indus Valley Civilisation, "The Near-Eastern Roots of the Neolithic in South Asia", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mehrgarh&oldid=984241174, Cultural heritage sites in Balochistan, Pakistan, Populated places established in the 7th millennium BC, Archaeological sites in Balochistan, Pakistan, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. pottery, metallurgy, wheel They cultivated six-row barley, einkorn and emmer wheat, jujubes and dates, and herded sheep, goats and cattle. Period II is at site MR4 and Period III is at MR2. Mehrgarh is a Neolithic (7000-3200 BC) site on the Kachi plain of Baluchistan, Pakistan, and one of the earliest sites with evidence of farming (wheat and barley) and herding (cattle, sheep and goats) in south Asia. Mehrgarh Civilisation: Mehrgarh is particularly significant in the centres of the Neolithic era before the Harappan civilization. However, it cannot be said exactly how much religion has to do with these idols. It was during this time that they began to use earthenware. It is now considered to be a precursor to the Indus Valley Civilisation. " According to Romero, this suggests that "the most common lactose tolerance mutation made a two-way migration out of the Middle East less than 10,000 years ago. This civilization is believed to last many years. Houses also grew in size. FIGURINE FÉMININE EN TERRE CUITE, CIVILISATION DE L'INDUS, MEHRGARH, VERS 2900 AV.J.C. (2011) refer to (Meadow 1993): Jarrige: "Tough it is difficult to date precisely Philadelphia: Univ. The bones of deer, elephants, sapphires, wild sheep and goats, pigs, cows, etc. " They further note that "[t]he earliest evidence of cattle herding in south Asia comes from the Indus River Valley site of Mehrgarh and is dated to 7,000 YBP. , The last period is found at the Sibri cemetery, about 8 kilometers from Mehrgarh. Foreword 2. Child bones were found in large jars or urn burials (4000~3300 BCE). Many historians regard Mehrgarh to be the first settled village settlement in the world.and certainly the first within Pakistan. Mehrgarh. J.-C.. A cette date, les grandes villes commencent brusquement à se dépeupler.  The characteristic female figurines appear beginning in Period IV and the finds show more intricate designs and sophistication. Le site se trouve au Baloutchistan pakistanais, dans la plaine du Kachi, près de la passe de Bolan, à l'ouest de la vallée de l'Indus et entre les villes actuelles de Quetta, Kalat et Sibi. For this reason, many have called this civilization the original Indus civilization. Some of the signs of Harappa civilization are seen in this civilization, many have called this civilization as the original Indus civilization. They occur in all phases of the settlement and were prevalent even before pottery appears. , Early Mehrgarh residents lived in mud brick houses, stored their grain in granaries, fashioned tools with local copper ore, and lined their large basket containers with bitumen. The earliest farming in the area was developed by semi-nomadic people using plants such as wheat and barley and animals such as sheep, goats and cattle. The first button seals were produced from terracotta and bone and had geometric designs. There was no livelihood or livelihood of the people here. Facebook is showing information to help you better understand the purpose of a Page. Some of the signs of Harappa civilization are seen in this civilization, many have called this civilization as the original Indus civilization. Mehrgarh is considered to be one of the most important Neolithic sites in archaeology. Découvertes [modifier | modifier le code] Découverte en 1985, l'amulette de Mehrgarh, âgée de 6 000 ans, est longtemps restée une énigme. La civilisation de l'Indus a été précédée par les premières cultures agricoles de cette partie de l'Asie du Sud, qui sont apparues dans les collines du Baloutchistan, à l'ouest de la vallée de l'Indus. C. The earliest settlement at Mehrgarh, in the northeast corner of the 495-acre (2.00 km2) site, was a small farming village that has been dated to between 7000 BCE to 5500 BCE. La Période Viii Et Les Fouilles De Sibri Addendum Au Paragraphe 9 Introduction 1. La civilisation de l'Indus proprement dite, qui se développe entre 2400 et 1800 avant J. These houses were built with sun-dried bricks.  Mehrgarh is probably the earliest known center of agriculture in South Asia. The discovery of the Mehrgarh civilization is important for a few reasons. Statuette féminine assise, jambes en avant, nue, parée de bijoux, tenant dans ses bras un oiseau et une aiguière de part et d'autre de ses seins proéminents. The dead body was buried and the body was found buried while curled up. It lies on the Kacchi Plain of Balochistan, Pakistan. The Mehrgarh Period I (pre-7000 BCE-5500 BCE)[note 5] was Neolithic and aceramic, without the use of pottery. Figurines of females were decorated with paint and had diverse hairstyles and ornaments. Its discovery shed new light on the development of agricultural technologies and agrarian lifestyles of the ancient Stone Age people of South Asia. Philadelphia: Univ. Evidence from archaeological evidence is evident from the fact that the people here built houses and set up villages. Cows, sheep, goats and possibly dogs were also domesticated. (4 1/2 in.) From the stones found in Mehrgarh, it seems that their trade extended at least to Turkmenistan.  Mehrgarh is located near the Bolan Pass, to the west of the Indus River valley and between the present-day Pakistani cities of Quetta, Kalat and Sibi. Philadelphia: Univ. A MEHRGARH TERRACOTTA FEMALE FIGURINE, INDUS VALLEY, … Pipal leaf designs are used in decoration from Period VI. The ruins of Mehrgarh were discovered 5 km away from Quetta town on the banks of the Bolan River in Balochistan’s Kachchi plain. Mehrgarh est un grand site néolithique et chalcolithique situé au pied du Bolan passe dans la plaine Kachi du Baloutchistan (également orthographié Baloutchistan), à l’ époque moderne du Pakistan. , Evidence of pottery begins from Period II. Fourthly, there are masculinity and raw clay figures found on raw soil. have been found in the animals. Gallego romero et al. , The oldest ceramic figurines in South Asia were found at Mehrgarh. 7000-2600 f.Kr., Mehrgarh er den tidligst kendte neolitiske sted i det nordvestlige indiske subkontinent, med tidlig tegn på landbrug (hvede og byg), hyrde (kvæg, får og geder) og metallurgi. J.-C. - 2000 av. Aldershot: Ashgate. Recommended Stories. J. Mehrgarh was influenced by the Near Eastern Neolithic, with similarities between "domesticated wheat varieties, early phases of farming, pottery, other archaeological artefacts, some domesticated plants and herd animals." Jarrige notes "the assumption that farming economy was introduced full-fledged from Near-East to South Asia,"[note 2] and the similarities between Neolithic sites from eastern Mesopotamia and the western Indus valley, which are evidence of a "cultural continuum" between those sites. The earliest settlement at Mehrgarh—in the northeast corner of the 495-acre (2.00 km2) site—was a small farming village dated between 7000 BCE and 5500 BCE. According to Gangal et al. ", sfn error: no target: CITEREFDikshit2013 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFGangal2014 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFParpola2015 (. -C., connaît une vaste expansion et une grande homogénéité. The earliest figurines are quite simple and do not show intricate features. Although Mehrgarh was abandoned by the time of the emergence of the literate urbanised phase of the Indus Civilisation, its development illustrates the development of the civilisation’s subsistence patterns as well as its craft and trade specialisation. La civilisation de Jiroft sur les plateaux iraniens servait d’intermédiaire dans les échanges par voie de mer comme de terre. All the figurines up to this period were female. , Somewhere between 2600 BCE and 2000 BCE, the city seems to have been largely abandoned in favor of the larger and fortified town Nausharo five miles away when the Indus Valley Civilization was in its middle stages of development. Period V from 3250 to 3000 BCE and period VI was around 3000 BCE. Mehrgarh er en stor yngre stenalder og kalkolitiske sted beliggende ved foden af Bolan videregive Kachi sletten Baluchistan (også stavet Baluchistan), i moderne Pakistan. Glazed faience beads were produced and terracotta figurines became more detailed. Dolukhanov P (1994) Environment and Ethnicity in the Ancient Middle East. Secondly, even though civilization was of the Neolithic era, metals such as copper and lead were not completely unknown. Residents of the later period (5500 BCE to 2600 BCE) put much effort into crafts, including flint knapping, tanning, bead production, and metal working. PTM chief Manzoor Pashteen denied entry into Balochistan. People of that time used to cultivate barley, wheat, kul, palm, etc. Mehrgarh is one of the world’s Neolithic sites that is situated in present-day Pakistan.It is on the western side of the Indus Valley, near Bolan Pass and between the … sfn error: no target: CITEREFGallego_Romero2011 (, List of inventions and discoveries of the Indus Valley Civilization, Hydraulic engineering of the Indus Valley Civilization, "Archeologists confirm Indian civilization is 2000 years older than previously believed, Jason Overdorf, Globalpost, 28 November 2012", "Indus Valley 2,000 years older than thought", "Archeologists confirm Indian civilization is 8000 years old, Jhimli Mukherjee Pandey, Times of India, 29 May 2016", "Haryana's Bhirrana oldest Harappan site, Rakhigarhi Asia's largest: ASI", "Y-chromosome lineages trace diffusion of people and languages in Southwestern Asia", "Where West meets East: the complex mtDNA landscape of the Southwest and Central Asian corridor", "Early Neolithic tradition of dentistry: Flint tips were surprisingly effective for drilling tooth enamel in a prehistoric population. La civilisation de l'Indus Civilisation ancienne de l'Inde et du Pakistan, localisée dans la vallée de l'Indus (Mehrgarh, Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro, Amri…) et qui s'étend … (2011) state that their research on lactose tolerance in India suggests that "the west Eurasian genetic contribution identified by Reich et al. Finally, the discovery of this civilization proves that in the Neolithic period before the Indus civilization, Balochistan was a highly developed rural-based civilization in the region. Among the items found in the tomb are the main pendant made of oysters, beads of beads and oysters, stone pendant, bone ring, polished stone kudus etc. It is one of the earliest sites with evidence of farming and herding in South Asia. Périodes Mehrgarh II et III. (A) In ancient times, houses were built with multiple houses. La Période Viic Et La Question Des Relations De Mehrgarh Avec La Civilisation Harappéenne Addendum Au Paragraphe 8 9. Neolithic decline, Ancient archaeological site in Balochistan, Pakistan, Mehrgarh Period I (pre-7000 BCE-5500 BCE), Mehrgarh Period II (5500 BCE–4800 BCE) and Period III (4800 BCE–3500 BCE), Mehrgarh Periods IV, V and VI (3500 BCE-3000 BCE). Many of the female figurines are holding babies, and were interpreted as depictions of the "mother goddess". -C. apparaît, dans la vallée de l'Indus, une civilisation urbaine comparable à celles de … , The oldest known example of the lost-wax technique comes from a 6,000-year-old wheel-shaped copper amulet found at Mehrgarh. L’épanouissement de la civilisation de l’Indus dure jusqu’en 1900 av. According to Lukacs and Hemphill, while there is a strong continuity between the neolithic and chalcolithic (Copper Age) cultures of Mehrgarh, dental evidence shows that the chalcolithic population did not descend from the neolithic population of Mehrgarh, which "suggests moderate levels of gene flow. J.-C., ce qui correspond à la période de la civilisation de la vallée de l'Indus.  The site containing Periods IV to VII is designated as MR1. Numerous burials have been found, many with elaborate goods such as baskets, stone and bone tools, beads, bangles, pendants and occasionally animal sacrifices, with more goods left with burials of males. J World Prehistory 20: 1–86, Jarrige C (2008) The figurines of the first farmers at Mehrgarh and their offshoots. Read full story. Alizadeh A (2003) Excavations at the prehistoric mound of Chogha Bonut, Khuzestan, Iran. Les archéologues ont découvert que les individus de la civilisation de la vallée de l’Indus connaissaient également la proto-dentisterie des premières époques de Harappan. Yet the Kili Gul Muhammad site, itself, may have started c. 5500 BC. , Period IV was 3500 to 3250 BCE. Pragdhara 18: 167–178, Fuller DQ (2006) Agricultural origins and frontiers in South Asia: a working synthesis. [note 1] Mehrgarh was influenced by the Near Eastern Neolithic, with similarities between "domesticated wheat varieties, early phases of farming, pottery, other archaeological artefacts, some domesticated plants and herd animals. Older than Mohenjo-daro, Mehrgarh represents the oldest, and most neglected, civilisation in the region. These ground stone axes are the earliest to come from a stratified context in South Asia. "Here we describe eleven drilled molar crowns from nine adults discovered in a Neolithic graveyard in Pakistan that dates from 7,500 to 9,000 years ago. Two flexed burials were found in Period II with a red ochre cover on the body. First, the evidence found in wheat and barley cultivation here suggests that the origin of these two crops was not imported from West Asia to India. MEHERGARH CENTER The Center, Mehergarh, Principally focuses on creating a critical mass of young people who are committed to develop responsible citizenry, progressive leadership and … He used to trade and trade. The settlement was established with unbaked mud-brick buildings and most of them had four internal subdivisions. " Gallego Romero notes that Indians who are lactose-tolerant show a genetic pattern regarding this tolerance which is "characteristic of the common European mutation. Iranica Antiqua XXXVII: 113–149, Kuzmina EE, Mair VH (2008) The Prehistory of the Silk Road. , Metal finds have dated as early as Period IIB, with a few copper items. But given the originality of Mehrgarh, Jarrige concludes that Mehrgarh has an earlier local background," and is not a "'backwater' of the Neolithic culture of the Near East. , There are two types of burials in the Mehrgarh site.  Much evidence of manufacturing activity has been found and more advanced techniques were used. Hiebert FT, Dyson RH (2002) Prehistoric Nishapur and frontier between Central Asia and Iran. J.-C., ce qui correspond à la période de la civilisation de la vallée de l'Indus. "[note 4]. The main centres of this civilization are Kille Gul Mohammad, Kot Digi, Gumla, Mundigak, Rana Ghundai, Anjira and Mehrgarh. (2014), there is strong archeological and geographical evidence that neolithic farming spread from the Near East into north-west India. According to Parpola, the culture migrated into the Indus Valley and became the Indus Valley Civilisation. Third, people here used to trade with remote areas. ", Lukacs and Hemphill suggest an initial local development of Mehrgarh, with a continuity in cultural development but a change in population. There were individual burials where a single individual was enclosed in narrow mud walls and collective burials with thin mud brick walls within which skeletons of six different individuals were discovered. Il offre sur plus de 200 hectares une séquence d'occupation d'environ 7000 à 2000 avant J.-C. Il a révélé les débuts de l'économie agricole dans une agglomération. (2009) principally reflects gene flow from Iran and the Middle East. The Lost Cities on the Indus. Periods I, II and III are considered contemporaneous with another site called Kili Gul Mohammad. Les villes se contractent puis sont abandonnées. Technologies included stone and copper drills, updraft kilns, large pit kilns and copper melting crucibles. in a living person) was found in Mehrgarh. , farming, animal husbandry During this time they were farming, raising and hunting. Mehrgarh (Balochi: Mehrgaŕh; Pashto: مهرګړ ; Urdu: مہرگڑھ ) is a Neolithic site (dated c. 7000 BCE to c. 2500/2000 BCE), which lies on the Kacchi Plain of Balochistan, Pakistan. Ornaments of sea shell, limestone, turquoise, lapis lazuli and sandstone have been found, along with simple figurines of women and animals. Genetic research shows a complex pattern of human migrations. According to archaeologists, this civilization originated in about 5 BC. Neolithic religion Possehl GL (1999) Indus Age: The Beginnings. Jarrige JF (2008) Mehrgarh Neolithic. Pragdhara 18: 155–166. Mehrgarh is one of the earliest sites with evidence of farming and herding in South Asia. Si la religion de la civilisation de l’Indus n’est pas la source directe de la religion védique puis indienne, elle en est une composante apparem-ment importante. These findings provide evidence for a long tradition of a type of proto-dentistry in an early farming culture. Découverte en 1985, l'amulette de Mehrgarh, âgée de 6 000 ans, est longtemps restée une énigme. , Jean-Francois Jarrige argues for an independent origin of Mehrgarh. Mehrgarh (Balochi: Mehrgaŕh; Pashto: مهرګړ; Urdu: مہرگڑھ) is a Neolithic site (dated c. 7000 BCE to c. 2500/2000 BCE), which lies on the Kacchi Plain of Balochistan, Pakistan. Fissures au genou et au fessier. the beginning of Period I, it can be rather securely assessed that the first occupation of Mehrgarh has to be put in a context probably earlier than 7000 BC. "[note 2] According to Parpola, the culture migrated into the Indus Valley and became the Indus Valley Civilisation. QUETTA: Balloons being released into the air during a 15km-long walk from the Hanna Lake to the city centre on Sunday in an attempt to create awareness about Mehrgarh civilisation.—Online Mar 2, 2014 - Mehrgarh is located near the Bolan Pass, to the west of the Indus River valley and between the Pakistani cities of Quetta, Kalat and Sibi. Site archéologique du Baloutchistan pakistanais, reliant la vallée de l'Indus à l'Iran et à l'Asie centrale. Hauteur : 11,5 cm. Jarrige, C, J. F. Jarrige, R. H. Meadow, G. Quivron, eds (1995/6), This page was last edited on 19 October 2020, at 01:08. In April 2006, it was announced in the scientific journal Nature that the oldest (and first early Neolithic) evidence for the drilling of human teeth in vivo (i.e. Historian Michael Wood suggests this took place around 2500 BCE. From Mehrgarh - Mehrgarh is one of the most important Neolithic (6500 BCE to c. 2500 BCE) sites in archaeology. French archaeologists, led by Jean Frasoa Jariz, discovered the ruins of this Mehrgarh civilization. The site is located on the principal route between what is now Afghanistan and the Indus Valley. La cité semble avoir été largement désertée autour de 2600 av. Løbende besat mellem ca. circular ditches, henges, megaliths 22 Number of Players in All Popular Sports-Games List, What is article 370 of the Indian constitution || Explain article 370 in English. The aceramic Neolithic phase in the region is now called 'Kili Gul Muhammad phase', and it is dated 7000-5000 BC. Jacques Népote, La civilisation de l'Indus. Male figurines appear only from period VII and gradually become more numerous. Pragdhara 18: 136–154, Costantini L (2008) The first farmers in Western Pakistan: the evidence of the Neolithic agropastoral settlement of Mehrgarh. , In 2001, archaeologists studying the remains of nine men from Mehrgarh made the discovery that the people of this civilization had knowledge of proto-dentistry. The amount of burial goods decreased over time, becoming limited to ornaments and with more goods left with burials of females. The site was discovered in 1974 by an archaeological team directed by French archaeologists Jean-François Jarrige and Catherine Jarrige, and was excavated continuously between 1974 and 1986, and again from 1997 to 2000. 8. Mehrgarh is one of the earliest sites with evidence of farming and herding in South Asia. A single ground stone axe was discovered in a burial, and several more were obtained from the surface. Pennsylvania Press. Mehrgarh est un site néolithique du Pakistan, en Asie du Sud, et l'un des plus importants en archéologie pour l'étude des premiers peuplements néolithiques de la région. Mehrgarh, civilisation de l'Indus, 2 000 à 2 500 avant J.-C. Ce type de figurine était vraisemblablement utilisé pour les rituels liés à la fertilité. Le site le mieux connu de cette culture est Mehrgarh, datant d'environ 6500 av. According to the authors, their discoveries point to a tradition of proto-dentistry in the early farming cultures of that region. " They wrote that "the direct lineal descendents of the Neolithic inhabitants of Mehrgarh are to be found to the south and the east of Mehrgarh, in northwestern India and the western edge of the Deccan plateau," with neolithic Mehrgarh showing greater affinity with chalcolithic Inamgaon, south of Mehrgarh, than with chalcolithic Mehrgarh. In period III, the finds become much more abundant as the potter's wheel is introduced, and they show more intricate designs and also animal motifs. However, they grow in sophistication with time and by 4000 BC begin to show their characteristic hairstyles and typical prominent breasts. Mehrgarh is the second oldest Indus Valley civilization site after Bhirrana, Haryana, India. Sea shells from far sea shore and lapis lazuli found as far away as present-day Badakshan, Afghanistan shows good contact with those areas. Aux pieds de la passe de Bolan près de … However, by Period VIII, the quality and intricacy of designs seem to have suffered due to mass production, and due to a growing interest in bronze and copper vessels. Mehrgarh is the second oldest Indus Valley civilization site after Bhirrana, Haryana, India. Although the use of the metal is unknown, a copper sculpture has been found from the tomb. J.-C. - 2000 av. The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilisation in the northwestern regions of South Asia, lasting from 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE, and in its mature form from 2600 BCE to 1900 BCE. There is further evidence of long-distance trade in Period II: important as an indication of this is the discovery of several beads of lapis lazuli, once again from Badakshan. Weapons or accessories were made of stone. Vers 2500 av. La civilisation mystérieuse de Mehrgarh" L'analyse métallurgique d'une barre de cuivre d'une sépulture du néolithique (6e millénaire avant notre ère) à Mehrgarh, au Pakistan, a permis la récupération de plusieurs fils, conservés par la minéralisation. Mehrgarh. The marine oysters found here seem to have been traded along the coast. (B) Later on, the importance of agriculture and livestock increased. Mehrgarh was a small farming and pastoralist village between 7000-5500 BC, with mud brick houses and granaries. It lies on the Kacchi Plain of Balochistan, Pakistan. Technical report, University of Chicago, Illinois. The metallurgical analysis of a copper bead from a Neolithic burial (6th millennium bc) at Mehrgarh, Pakistan, allowed the recovery of several threads, preserved by mineralization.They were characterized according to new procedure, combining the use of a reflected-light microscope and a scanning electron microscope, and identified as cotton (Gossypium sp. From these houses small objects of stone, wood, bone tools, etc. Mehrgarh: The Lost Civilisation [1 of 4] Pakistan is the epitome and zenith of diverse cultures and harmonized expressions of human creative influences ranging from initial agricultural relics at Mehrgarh and the first human dentistry which was practiced here in Balochistan. La civilisation de la vallée de l’Indus est également connue sous le nom de civilisation harappéenne, d’après Harappa, le premier de ses sites à avoir été fouillé dans les années 1920, dans ce qui était alors la province du Pendjab de l’Inde britannique et se trouve maintenant au Pakistan. Archaeological material has been found in six mounds, and about 32,000 artifacts have been collected.
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